Why are there sharp and flat musical notes?

In strictly theoretical terms, there are sharp and flat sounds because these two sounds are not the same. the difference between them is minuscule, however, they are generally considered the same sound, ignoring this tiny difference.

To understand it better, let's suppose that the difference between do and re is the same on a scale between 10 and 20. In mathematics, you can easily understand that the midpoint between these two quantities is 15. This is because you can count five from 10 or 20 and reach 15. To do that, you started counting the next number, that is, either the 11 or the 19.

In music, however, we start counting from the do or from the re, not from any following. This means that, if we consider our previous example, sharp do would be a 14 and flat re would be a 16... not a 15! Music experts opted to ignore this tiny difference because of two reasons: one, for simplicity; the other for practicality. Could you imagine a musical instrument with both sounds between a do and a re? That would make playing music brutally hard to achieve!

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